May 3rd, 2011
08:24 AM ET

Opinion: Support women's rights without war

By David Cortright, Special to CNN

Editor's Note: David Cortright is the Director of Policy Studies at the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame. He is the author or editor of seventeen books, including most recently "Ending Obama's War: Responsible Military Withdrawal from Afghanistan" (Paradigm Press, 2011). He testifies this week at a hearing on women in Afghanistan before the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission of the Committee on Foreign Affairs in the U.S. House of Representatives.

What will happen to Afghan women when the United States begins withdrawing troops later this year? Will women be thrown under the bus as soldiers head for the exits?

To find out what Afghan women think, my colleague Sarah Smiles Persinger and I authored the report Afghan Women Speak, based on more than 50 interviews in Kabul with policymakers, diplomats, military officers, and most importantly Afghan women, including female parliamentarians, activists, health and NGO workers.

The women we interviewed realize they cannot achieve progress in a militarized environment. They favor a peace process and reconciliation with the Taliban and insurgent groups. But they do not want a peace that is purchased at their expense.

The challenge is how to demilitarize while preserving the gains women have achieved in recent years.

Since 2001, Afghan women and girls have experienced significant improvements in their lives. They have seized opportunities to go to school, earn an income and participate in public life – all denied to them during Taliban years. More than 7 million Afghan children are now in school – 37 per cent of them girls – compared to only 900,000 boys in 2002. Health care has become more widely available, and hundreds of midwives have been trained in a push to lower maternal mortality rates. The Afghan Parliament has a 25 per cent reserve quota for women.

These gains are real but they are in danger because of rising violence and insurgency. Taliban influence has spread, and reactionary former warlords hold sway in parts of the Kabul government. Anger and resentment towards Western military involvement has produced a backlash towards the "women's rights discourse," which is seen as an alien imposition by many Afghans. Women exercising leadership skills are often called anti-Islamic, Western agents, or prostitutes, and subject to death threats and intimidation. Some high-profile women have been assassinated.

Hundreds of schools have been closed, and girl students have been targeted for attack. Health clinics have been closed as health workers are abducted and killed. Insecurity has limited women's participation in the electoral process and public life. Electoral participation rates for women and men have declined since the high point of 2005.

Despite all of this, the majority of women we interviewed support a peace process because they know that women and girls are suffering from war. They can see their rights eroding as violence increases.

Our report offers suggestions for gradually reducing the U.S. military presence while protecting security and preserving political, economic and social opportunity.

Addressing the security situation is paramount. To protect civilians and avoid a security vacuum as U.S. troops leave, we propose the deployment of an interim security force from Muslim countries, to be deployed as Western troops withdraw.

The proposed security force would operate under the auspices of the United Nations, with a mission of providing population-centric protection during an interim period. Taliban leaders have supported the deployment of such a force and have pledged not to attack it.

As U.S.-led forces cease operations and pull back to their bases in advance of withdrawal, the interim security force could be introduced. It would need to be paid and equipped by the United States and its NATO allies. Remaining Western troops could help train the force. The interim security force would operate for a limited period under UN authority with the consent of the Afghan government.

The draw down in foreign troops must be accompanied by long-term, sustained investment in aid projects that support Afghan women and families. Because development funding has been linked to military objectives and aid money has been concentrated in areas with the most fighting, foreign governments will be tempted to reduce aid programs as they begin to withdraw troops. This would be a tragedy for Afghanistan's future, and a slap at women's rights.

CARE and other aid organizations have identified social programs that are effective at improving the lives of women and families, especially in the areas of education and healthcare – such as improving access to secondary education for girls, training female health workers and expanding economic opportunities for women in rural areas.

One of the best ways to prevent a roll back in women's gains is to ensure that women are meaningfully represented in all peace discussions and forums. So far, Afghan women have had to fight hard to have their voices heard in the various discussions and peace jirgas convened in recent years. Western policymakers have significant leverage with the Afghan government that should be used to ensure that women are included in high-level decision-making forums. Secretary of State Clinton has displayed exemplary leadership in advocating for Afghan women's rights. Other U.S. officials should follow her lead.

Many stakeholders in the West have had high expectations about empowering Afghan women, but we have learned over the past decade that deeply rooted gender prejudices and misogyny will not be erased rapidly and certainly not by outside forces. Nonetheless the United States and other donor states have significant leverage, which must be used to improve security, preserve women's political rights, support Afghan women's organizations actively working for change, and sustain programs for public health, education, and economic opportunity that have improved women's lives.

The opinions in this commentary are solely those of David Cortright.

soundoff (8 Responses)
  1. pamiri

    We have our cultures respect women rights and we respect to them, and different place of Afghanistan has different cultures and we respect all of them, but there is some nonsense, ways of habits against the women in Afghanistan and women do compromising on that , which we have good things in our culture in the country, and we respect other cultures in all the country, and the cultures are made on the base of what things acceptable for the people of communities.

    but in our country some things is not acceptable, is not according our culture, and some stupid people do it, for example in the country some one are behave such as, if the women ride on donkey, no problem, but if they ride on motorcycle, people say oh it is shameful,
    if the women work on the land field, no problem, but if they have participation in other field outside of the house then its shameful for someone,

    if women sit among the men in the bus, no problem, but if the women driving car, then its shameful for someone,

    We have respect not just to the women of Afghanistan, but also we respect the women of the world, as a human being we should, because we are human being, what we like for ourselves we also should like for others too,

    From Kabul

    May 6, 2011 at 2:04 pm | Report abuse |
  2. Joseph McCarthy

    Women's rights in Afghanistan went out with the Communist regime in 1992. It's too bad that the West had to interfere on behalf of the Muhejeddin which was a huge mistake. The Communists should have been left free to clean up that mess.

    May 3, 2011 at 3:05 pm | Report abuse |
    • salerno

      It is not correct that women rights went out with the Comunist regime in 1992. The Revolutionary Women of Afghanistan Ass. (RAWA) had their leader killed by KGB, and they were against the regime as well as they are against the US occupation.

      May 3, 2011 at 3:26 pm | Report abuse |
  3. Riza Afghan

    To be honest, Women have no real right right now in Afghanistan but it's better than Saudi Arabia.A
    fghanistan's Women's right is 30-40% more than Saudi Arabia Women's Right. coz in Saudi Arabia Women's have no right at all.

    and I don't think Afghans will throw anyone under the bus as it's quoted by CNN. CNN should stop their bullsh!t little bit and respect a country. If all women in the USA is walking naked, it doesn't mean their right is very high, we call them nude ! not right.

    Culture is Culture and Afghans respect Women's right, just in few regions which lives Pashtun people have no right at all. Pashtuns are not respecting their women and treating them like garbage, don't compare other Afghan Residents like Pashtun people.

    comparing Pashtun with other Afghans like Kabuli / Hazara / Tajik / Panshiri is like comparing USA with Pakistan. I hope you understand what i am talking about 😉

    60% Afghans which are not Pashtuns are respecting Women's right and that will remain always, i can not judge about Pashtuns, even if USA stay in Afghanistan for 1000 more years, Pashtuns will give no right to their Women. 😛

    Personally myself as an Afghan citizen, i would give my Wife even 51% right and i will have 49%.
    Women's should be respected, they do more then Men and they should have more right then Men!!!

    Peace 😀

    May 3, 2011 at 8:43 am | Report abuse |
  4. salerno

    Only partially agree with the article, as most Afghan women had no improvement in their condition after the departure of Taliban from power. On the contrary, they continue to suffer often domestic violence, plus the violence of the american military, bombing them, killing them their parents, husbands and sons. The US military is a bunch of criminal baby killers and H. Clinton did nothing to improve women conditions. Many US politicians admitted they do not care a thing about Pashtun women in Afghanistan. This is just Propaganda and WINDOW DRESSING.

    May 3, 2011 at 8:40 am | Report abuse |
    • Riza Afghan

      salerno, Pashtun women will never get right even if whole world put preasure on Pashtun people. that's their culture. they are not going to change their culture at any cost.

      Pashtuns are treating Pashtun women like garbage and it will remain like that even if Afghanistan become civilized like France 😛 Pashtuns culture is there and will stay 😉

      There are like 5% Pashtuns who are living in Capital, they grew up there, they know how to treat their women but not those who live in Kandahar / Zabul / Kunar / Jalalabad and some other Pashtun regions.

      Killing terrorist is easier then changing Pashtuns Women treating culture 😛 so it's better Afghan GOV stay out of this.

      May 3, 2011 at 8:53 am | Report abuse |
      • salerno

        The important is at least stop the US violence. I support the RAWA.

        May 3, 2011 at 9:11 am | Report abuse |
    • Dan from Detroit, MI

      Quite correct salerno,the U.S. occupation of Afghanistan needs to end as the American politicians care nothing about the plight of the Afghan women or children.

      May 3, 2011 at 8:21 pm | Report abuse |